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The Rule Of Threes states that you can survive 3 Minutes without air... 3 Days without water... and, 3 Weeks without food. Far more important than food, as necessary as you may think it is, is a clean and sustainable water supply. One Gallon of drinking water per person, per day should be your absolute minimum.

Rehydration:  (Electrolytes) Mix - If you should come down with severe diarrhea, you can die from dehydration and loss of electrolytes. Stocking some Pedialyte, Gatorade (dilute to 50% with water) or making the homemade equivalent could be a life saver. The basic recipe is 1 teaspoon (5ml) salt, 8 teaspoons sugar and 1 liter of water. 

* Emergency Water Purification - Filtration - Boiling - Calcium Hypochlorite - Bleach... 

I strongly recommend that you purchase this filter while they are still available and affordable:
Just Water Ceramic Filter Kit @ $23.50  < http://shop.monolithic.com/products/just-water-ceramic-drip-filter >  The addition of two 5 gallon pails with lids will give you a high capacity, ceramic/charcoal/silver, pour over filter that will process thousands of gallons of drinking water from ponds, pools, streams, cisterns, and rain barrels. Only an IDIOT would not have one of these on hand. Buy several for family and friends. 

In an emergency, to purify drinking water, two methods are most often used. They are boiling the water and adding chlorine (household bleach, such as Chlorox or calcium hypochlorite) to it (See “Better Than Bleach” below). Most emergency experts and health officials suggest a mixture of 8 drops of bleach to a gallon of generally clear water for best results. Based on environment or cloudiness of the water, you may want to change the quantity of drops to 16 per gallon of cloudy or murky water. As suggested by the EPA, bring water to a vigorous boil and allow to cool. Anything beyond a full boil is unnecessary. Don’t waste time or fuel boiling it for 5 or 10 minutes. The flat taste of boiled water can be improved by pouring it back and forth from one container to another (called aeration), by allowing it to stand in a closed container for a few hours, or by adding a small pinch of salt for each quart of water boiled. When boiling is not practical, chemical disinfection should be used. Common household bleach contains a chlorine compound that will disinfect water. The treated water should be mixed thoroughly and allowed to stand, preferably covered, for 30 minutes. The water should have a slight chlorine odor; if not, repeat the dosage and allow the water to stand for an additional 15 minutes. If the treated water has too strong a chlorine taste, it can be made more pleasing by allowing the water to stand exposed to the air for a few hours or by pouring it from one clean container to another several times. 

As suggested by Chlorox (with their permission), this is an excerpt from company published documents: 
Boiling or using a pour over ceramic charcoal-silver impregnated water filter Is Best Short of using a very high-quality water filter (Berkey, Doulton, Stefani, Just Water), boiling is the most reliable method for killing microbes and parasites. Bring water to a rolling boil. Cover the pot to shorten boiling time and conserve fuel. 

Liquid Clorox Bleach: 
In an emergency, think of this (one gallon of Regular UNSCENTED Clorox Bleach) as 3,800 gallons of drinking water. When the tap water stops flowing, Regular Clorox Bleach isn’t just a laundry-aid, it’s a lifesaver. Use it to purify water, and you’ll have something to drink. It’s the same in any natural disaster. As the shock wears off and the days wear on, the biggest demand is for drinking water. Time after time, relief crews hand out free Clorox Bleach with simple instructions: use it to kill bacteria in your water and you’ll have purified water to drink. Here are the general guidelines. First let water stand until particles settle. Filter the particles if necessary with layers of cloth, coffee filters, or fine paper towels. Pour the clear water into an uncontaminated container and add Regular Clorox Bleach per the below indicated ratio. Mix well. Wait 30 min. Water should have a slight bleach odor. If not, repeat dose. Wait 15 min. Sniff again. Keep an eyedropper taped to your emergency bottle of Clorox Bleach, since purifying small amounts of water requires only a few drops. Bleach must be fresh for best use and results. Replace unopened bleach in storage every six months. See below suggestions for storage bottle replacement. 

Don’t pour purified water into contaminated containers. Sanitize water jugs first. Without water and electricity, even everyday tasks are tough. In lieu of steaming hot water, sanitize dishes, pots and utensils with a little Clorox Bleach. Just follow the directions below to keep dishes clean. Whether you use Clorox Bleach in an emergency or for everyday chores, it’s always an environmentally sound choice. After its work is done, Clorox Bleach breaks down to little more than salt and water, which is acceptable anytime. 

* Ratio of Clorox Bleach to Water for Purification: 
2 drops of Regular Clorox Bleach per quart of water 
8 drops of Regular Clorox Bleach per gallon of water 
1/2 teaspoon Regular Clorox Bleach per five gallons of water 
If water is cloudy, double the recommended dosages of Clorox Bleach. Only use Regular Clorox Bleach (unscented). To insure that Clorox Bleach is at its full strength, rotate or replace your storage bottle minimally every six months.
 
** Clorox Bleach Sanitizing Solution: 
To sanitize containers and utensils, mix 1 tablespoon Regular Clorox Bleach with one gallon of water. Always wash and rinse items first, then let each item soak in Clorox Bleach Sanitizing Solution for 2 minutes. Drain and air dry. 

* Better Than Bleach: 
Why Using Bleach to Disinfect Contaminated Water can be a Problem A little known problem with long term storage of bleach in your disaster emergency supply cache is that it degrades over time. Consulting a Chlorox bleach representative produced this statement: “We recommend storing our bleach at room temperatures. It can be stored for about 6 months at temperatures between 50 and 70 degrees Fahrenheit. After this time, bleach will be begin to degrade at a rate of 20% each year until totally degraded to salt and water. Storing at temperatures much higher than 70 degrees Fahrenheit could cause the bleach to lose its effectiveness and degrade more rapidly. However, if you require 6% sodium hypochlorite, you should change your supply every 3 months.” 

I cringe to think how many people have expired bleach in their disaster emergency kits that will be used for treating polluted water. Even what are considered reliable sources of information such as the EPA and the Federal Emergency Management Agency FEMA will show you how to use bleach to disinfect water but will leave out this exceedingly important piece of information. So if bleach is unreliable for long term storage in emergency preparedness kits then what other commonly available chemical methods of disinfecting water are there? As it turns out a better solution is easily available. 

* Use Calcium Hypochlorite to Disinfect Water:
A 1-pound bag of calcium hypochlorite in granular form will treat up to 10,000 gallons of drinking water. Calcium hypochlorite is one of the best chemical disinfectants for water, better than household bleach by far. It destroys a variety of disease causing organisms including bacteria, yeast, fungus, spores, and viruses. Calcium Hypochlorite is widely available for use as swimming pool chlorine tablets or white powder that is much more stable than chlorine. This is often known as “pool shock”. 

How to Disinfect Water Using Calcium Hypochlorite: Using granular calcium hypochlorite to disinfect water is a two step process. 
To make a stock of chlorine solution (do not drink this!) dissolve 1 heaping teaspoon (about one-quarter of an ounce) of high-test (78%) granular calcium hypochlorite for each two gallons (eight liters) of water. 
To disinfect water add one part of the chlorine solution to 100 parts water to be treated ( 1-1/4 ounces per gallon)(1 scant teaspoon per quart) 
(1 ounce = 600 drops • 1 teaspoon = 100 drops • 3 teaspoons = 1 tablespoon • 2 tablespoons = 1 ounce • 1 ounce = 6 teaspoons • 4 tablespoons = 1/4 cup • 1 cup = 8 ounces • 1 quart = 32 ounces • 1 gallon = 128 ounces) 
3.  Let the mixture sit for at least one-half hour before drinking. 
Be sure to obtain the dry granular calcium hypochlorite since once it is made into a liquid solution it will begin to degrade and eventually become useless as a disinfecting agent. This also means you should make your treated drinking water in small batches, for example enough for a few weeks at a time at most. 

Another plus for using calcium hypochlorite to disinfect water for emergency use is that a little goes a very long way. A 1- pound bag of calcium hypochlorite in granular form typically costs only a few $US dollars and can be obtained in any swimming pool supply section of your hardware store or online. This amount will treat up to 10,000 gallons of drinking water, which is enough for a family of four for some six or seven years at a gallon per day per person! Calcium hypochlorite will store for a long period of time and remain effective as a chemical drinking water treatment. So get rid of the household bleach and buy a can of Calcium hypochlorite for your disaster emergency water disinfection needs. It lasts far longer and treats far more water than the traditional chlorine bleach water disinfection treatment. 

Stabilized (Aerobic) Oxygen: 
Whenever the water is questionable, or whenever one needs to store water for an extended time — use Stabilized Oxygen. Stabilized Oxygen or Aerobic Oxygen is a safe, non-toxic stabilized liquid concentrate of electrolytes of oxygen. It has been used for years by knowledgeable travelers to purify drinking water in foreign countries such as Mexico, India, Russia, etc. Adding Stabilized Oxygen to water kills hostile microbes, anaerobic bacteria and viruses. Many school districts in California use Stabilized Oxygen in 55 gallon drums of water for their natural disaster storage programs. One ounce of Stabilized Oxygen makes 55 gallons of water safe to drink for 5 years or longer. Stabilized Oxygen is oxygen in molecular form. One of oxygen’s many properties is that it destroys harmful bacteria. Researchers have not found any anaerobic infectious disease bacteria that Stabilized Oxygen does not kill. This includes Salmonella, Cholera, Streptococcus, E. coli, Pseudomonos, Staphylococcus and even the dreaded Guardia-Lamblia, just to name a few. It is interesting to note that the friendly aerobic bacteria which we need in our digestive systems is not affected by Stabilized/ Aerobic Oxygen. In fact, the good bacteria thrive in its presence. 

How to Use Stabilized Oxygen: 
There are many applications for the use of Stabilized/Aerobic Oxygen. The major area of its application is to kill of harmful organisms, and at the same time increase the concentration of oxygen. A letter from the World Health Organization states: “After testing the sample you have sent to us against various organisms common to drinking water, we have concluded that it is indeed an effective disinfectant and most certainly has other applications.” 
Here are some other applications: 
a. Purification of potable water - 20 drops per gallon. 
b. Purification of questionable water - 20 drops/8 ounce serving (mountain streams and in Third World countries). 
c. Water storage - 10 drops per gallon. 
Stabilized/Aerobic Oxygen  <http://www.campingsurvival.com/staboxwatpur.html>

Colloidal Silver:
Colloidal Silver is an excellent water purifier. Water stored with two tablespoons of Colloidal Silver per gallon will be safe and sweet tasting for about five years. Water containing germ contaminants (not toxic chemicals) can be made drinkable by adding two to three tablespoons of Colloidal Silver per every gallon of water. The Silver, while purifying the water is also beneficial to the body, unlike the compounds containing toxic chlorine bleach. 

To guard against such water-borne diseases such as dysentery, the following airlines now use either silver water filters or a well known Hydrogen Peroxide/Colloidal Silver combination. British Airways, Swiss Air, Scandinavian Airlines, Lufthansa, Air France, Canadian Pacific Airlines, Alitalia, KLM, Japan Airlines and Pan Am. The Swiss and Australian Government has approved either or both the silver water filters or the hydrogen Peroxide/Colloidal Silver preparation which are now used in homes offices and town water supplies. 

After testing 23 methods of purifying water, NASA selected a silver system for its space shuttle. Home-canned foods: One-half teaspoon of Colloidal Silver per 1 liter in home-canned foods precludes the growth of all bacteria, virus and fungus. As the food is consumed, the presence of silver will aid in the digestion process by not allowing fermentation of starches contained in the food, and will prevent the putrefaction of protein or rancification of fats in the digestive tract. Silver is know to kill over 650 pathogens on contact.

Polar Pure Iodine Water Disinfectant: 
Polar Pure Water Disinfectant uses pure crystallized iodine in a unique delivery system to destroy water-borne pathogens including giardia cysts and micro-organisms (viruses) that pass through filters. Simply add water to your Polar Pure bottle to create and use a saturated solution to disinfect your water. Pure iodine crystals are stable and slightly soluble in water but evaporate easily. Keep your Polar Pure bottle filled with water and tightly capped to maintain a ready to use iodine-saturated solution. When used as directed, a saturated iodine solution for disinfection is maintained in your filled Polar Pure bottle. This saturated solution is then used to disinfect your drinking water at an optimal concentration of 4 - 5 ppm (parts per million - about 4 - 5 mg) iodine per quart/liter of water. Saturation concentration varies with the solution temperature, but a green dot on the liquid crystal dosage chart on the Polar Pure bottle shows how many capfuls are needed for disinfection.  A Polar Pure bottle will fit in your pocket and purify 2000 liters of water.  Get one.

• Does not deteriorate with extremes in temperature 
• Has an indefinite shelf life 
• Is safe and fully effective to use as long as you can see iodine crystals at the bottom of the bottle 
• One bottle treats up to 2000 quarts (500 gallons) of water at less than 1/2 cent per quart 
• Dosage chart is printed on the bottle  -  Indefinite shelf life 
• Bottle cap is used to measure and decant solution -- no other equipment needed 
• Small size and light weight makes it convenient for backpacking and travel 
Essential for emergency preparedness
 
Step One:  PREPARE SOLUTION -- Fill your Polar Pure bottle with water. Set aside. Solution will be ready to use in one hour. 
Step Two:  TREAT YOUR WATER -- When your Polar Pure solution is ready, pour the required capfuls of solution into your quart/liter container(s) of water. A green dot on the dosage table on the bottle of Polar Pure indicates the amount of solution required for treatment.  Let treated water stand (tightly sealed) for 20 minutes before use. Water to be treated that is colder than 68° F will take longer. 
Step Three:  REFILL YOUR POLAR PURE BOTTLE -- Refill your Polar Pure bottle with water and tightly cap. The solution will be ready to use in one hour. It is best to keep your bottle filled and ready to use at all times. Temperature and Dosage Table. Below is a conversion table for temperature of Polar Pure solution and the number of capfuls required to treat your quart/liter bottle of water. 
SOLUTION 
TEMPERATURE CAPFULS OF POLAR PURE PER QUART/LITER 
95° F (35° C) 1.2 
86° F (30° C) 1.3 
77° F (25° C) 1.5 
68° F (20° C) 2 
59° F (15° C) 2.5 
50° F (10° C) 3.5 
41° F (5° C) 4 
Polar Pure Water Disinfectant  <http://www.campingsurvival.com/popuwadi.html> 
<http://www.polarequipment.com/> 

Using Rainwater: 
Rain is funneled from the roof into gutters and from there into a holding tank (a cistern). The water will keep best if it’s underground (cool & out of the sun) -- even so, the first couple minutes of a rain should be channeled away from the tank so that the roof can be washed off, and clean water enter the tank. Filtration can take place right at your sink with a portable camp filter or a more elaborate (non electric!) system. Clothes washing and showers can be done without filtration, as long as the water smells okay and looks clear -- any water that touches food or your hands should go through the filter. The best rainwater is usually spring and fall waters; summer water is considered pretty poor, easily goes moldy, and tastes bad -- something to do with the bacteria and heat. If you have reasonable rain during the cooler seasons, you can store excess water (a chlorine bleach solution comes in handy) for the dry seasons. 

If you store water in an underground tank (cistern), you’ll need a simple hand-pump to draw it up -- they run around $50. Alternatively, you could just lower a (clean) bucket into the water by rope and haul it up. Either way, the system will work! You’ll probably have more water available by this cistern system than you realize. Plus, it’s relatively cheap to set up. How to build a rain water filtering system. The need for an adequate supply of pure water is second only to the need for air in importance, however there are several problems associated with water storage. One problem is to keep the water from freezing. Having the shelter buried deep enough, (below frost level), solves the problem. The second problem is preventing bacterial growth in the water. Adding one teaspoon of bleach solution for every five gallons of water (a charcoal impregnated pour-over filter will remove the chlorine) will prevent the growth of algae and bacteria. The water tank or containers should be emptied and refilled with fresh re-chlorinated water at least once every six months. The third problem is storage space for the water. The following gives an estimate of minimal water usage for ten people. At 70 degrees, each person needs a minimum of .5 gallons of water to drink daily For cooking and minimal sponge bathing, approximately another 1 gallon per person per day will be needed. The total minimum daily need would be 1.5 gallons of water per person.

The Effect of Radiation on Water Supplies: 
Ground water would be unaffected by radioactive fallout as long as the well casing was not open at the top allowing contaminates to get into the water source. Eighteen inches of earth will filter all radioactive dust particles our of rain and surface water penetrating into the ground. If stored water is enclosed in sealed containers, any fallout which is settled on the container can be cleaned off before opening. The water in any such container can be safely consumed. If water is exposed to radioactive fallout, it does not necessarily make the water itself radioactive. Even if the container is open and has been contaminated with radioactive fallout dust particles, the water can be filtered and safely used. The fall out does not contaminate the water chemically, but only through the presence of particulate material which can be removed by filtering. Any material capable of filtering out dust particles such as milk filters, multiple layers of paper towels or layers of cloth from a bed sheet will work as an expedient water filter. A conventional water filter or purification system is obviously the best instrument to use. 

In war, more civilians die from bad water than from bullets. This is due to the breakdown in sanitation and normal water systems. Civilians resort to drinking contaminated surface water. Even during times of peace municipal water systems can become contaminated. In 1993 in Milwaukee, 4,000 people were treated and 100 died from cryptosporidium cyst in the city water system. Chlorine has no effect on cryptosporidium cyst, only an appropriate filter or boiling will deal with the problem. 

Storing Water: 
The following are the basics for storing water A few good choices made in the beginning will save you grief when an emergency develops. The first consideration is, what kind of water should you store. tap water or commercially available bottled water? Bottled spring, drinking, or distilled water is great for emergency storage, but t can be expensive. I suggest you have some commercially bottled water in your cache. However, the bulk of your stored water will probably be tap water. How much water should be stored? We each need a minimum of .5 gallon of water for drinking, and a gallon of water for cooking and washing per day. Thus, we need to store 1.5 gallons of water, per day, per person. As an example, we need to store a minimum of 42 gallons of water for two people for two weeks. Or, 84 gallons for four people.  Although this is no small amount it isn’t enough for your daily shower. Choosing the proper containers to store water in is a major consideration. There are commercial containers available for water storage. Be very sure they are for water storage. An improper container will leach’ chemicals into the water. Your camping thermos jug is OK, and should be your starting container to fill with water. There are 5-gallon “collapsible” water carrier (containers) available through camping supply stores. A 2- or 3-liter disposable plastic soft drink bottle makes an excellent container for water storage. They are readily available, flexible, and made for storing liquids. Be sure and wash the empty containers very well (see sanitizing above). then let them completely air dry before using. A 2-Liter soft drink container holds about two quarts of water (one Liter equals 1.0567 US liquid quarts), or about 1/2 gallon of water. Glass bottles won’t leach, but may be broken if they fall during an earthquake, tornado, wind storm, etc. This may not be the problem in preparing for a winter freeze, but should be considered for long term storage. Store the water in a place where it can’t freeze. Frozen water will expand and break the container The ideal place to store water is away from direct sunlight, in a place where the temperature is moderate, and away from chemicals (like gasoline, pesticides, etc.). If you have to use the water (an emergency happens), use the commercially bottled water first for drinking (human consumption). Use the tap water for cooking and washing. If you run out of the bottled water and are concerned about the stored tap water boil the water (assuming you have cooking heat available via gas, wood, etc.) or run it through your filter. Another thing to consider when an emergency occurs; you may have several other sources of water available to use.

Water from a pool, hot tub, water bed, stream or pond can be used for commode flushing (assuming the plumbing still works) and for drinking if run through a good filtration system. Water from the commode tank (not the bowl) and your hot water heater can be used for washing. And if you suspect a water shortage (as an example, before an on-coming freeze, or following a National alert) you should fill your bath tubs and empty containers with water while it is available. Stored water doesn’t keep forever. Always filter suspect water. Rotate your stored tap water about every six months Pour it out clean and sanitize the containers, and refill them with fresh water. Chlorine & iodine treated water may taste bad or smell, so filter it after treatment, or store powdered drink mixes like Gatorade, Tang,  Kool-Aid or lemonade to mask the taste. 

Storing large quantities of water is difficult at best. You should have a reliable and easy to use filtration system AND chemical purification system available for emergencies. Finding water is easy, making it potable is the hard part.  One more time... Buy one, or more of these, and some of this as soon as possible. Copy and print this article, and store it with your water.http://shop.monolithic.com/products/just-water-ceramic-drip-filterhttp://shop.monolithic.com/products/just-water-ceramic-drip-filterhttp://shop.monolithic.com/products/just-water-ceramic-drip-filterhttp://www.bigberkeywaterfilters.com/index/gclid/COuZkp3NtqACFZdM5QodahViTQ?zenid=cec26d606de811c23caede1c4c081900http://shop.monolithic.com/products/just-water-ceramic-drip-filterhttp://www.nationaldiscountpoolsupplies.com/1lpotush.htmlhttp://www.campingsurvival.com/staboxwatpur.htmlhttp://www.campingsurvival.com/popuwadi.htmlhttp://www.polarequipment.com/http://www.rainwaterharvesting.org/Urban/Components.htmhttp://shop.monolithic.com/products/just-water-ceramic-drip-filterhttp://www.nationaldiscountpoolsupplies.com/1lpotush.htmlhttp://www.nationaldiscountpoolsupplies.com/1lpotush.htmlshapeimage_15_link_0shapeimage_15_link_1shapeimage_15_link_2shapeimage_15_link_3shapeimage_15_link_4shapeimage_15_link_5shapeimage_15_link_6shapeimage_15_link_7shapeimage_15_link_8shapeimage_15_link_9shapeimage_15_link_10shapeimage_15_link_11shapeimage_15_link_12
 
Water, Water Everywhere, And Not A Drop To Drink...